Law Enforcement's response to non-fatal strangulation Though long overlooked, non-fatal strangulation is a serious crime with severe medical and psychological implications. Recently, law enforcement has begun to take this crime more seriously, but there is still much room for improvement. This paper will explore the current state of law enforcement's response to non-fatal strangulation and make recommendations for improvement. The need for a better understanding of non-fatal strangulation There is a need for a better understanding of non-fatal strangulation, as it is a crime that is often underreported and misunderstood. Law enforcement's response to cases of non-fatal strangulation can be improved by increasing awareness of the dynamics of this type of violence and developing policies and training that reflect a better understanding of the dynamics of non-fatal strangulation. The current state of law enforcement's response to non-fatal strangulation In recent years, non-fatal strangulation has become recognized as a serious problem in the United States. Despite this, there is still no national standard for how law enforcement should respond to these incidents. As a result, response to non-fatal strangulation varies wildly from state to state and even from department to department. This is a problem because non-fatal strangulation is often a prelude to fatal strangulation. In fact, 70% of women who were killed by their intimate partners had been strangled by them at some point in the relationship. And yet, only 8% of cases of non-fatal strangulation are ever reported to law enforcement. One of the biggest obstacles to addressing this problem is the lack of data. Because there is no national standard for how law enforcement should respond to reports of non-fatal strangulation, there is no way to know how often these incidents are happening or what the outcomes are. This needs to change. There need to be national standards for how law enforcement should handle reports of non-fatal strangulation. These standards should include mandatory reporting requirements and standardized training for law enforcement on how to properly respond to these incidents. Additionally, there needs to be better data collection on non-fatal strangulation so that we can better understand the scope of the problem and identify trends over time. The potential benefits of a better understanding of non-fatal strangulation In recent years, there has been an increased focus on the serious nature of non-fatal strangulation incidents. These incidents often involve a high degree of force, and can result in serious injuries or even death. Despite the serious nature of these incidents, little is known about how best to respond to them. There is growing evidence that strangulation is often a precursor to fatal domestic violence incidents. In one study, nearly 60% of women who were killed by their intimate partners had been strangled by them at some point in the relationship. This underscores the importance of law enforcement taking non-fatal strangulation seriously and responding appropriately. There are many potential benefits to a better understanding of non-fatal strangulation. These benefits include: \tImproved victim safety: A better understanding of non-fatal strangulation can help law enforcement identify and respond to high-risk cases, which can potentially save lives. \tEnhanced offender accountability: By taking these incidents more seriously, law enforcement can send a strong message that this type of violence will not be tolerated. This can help hold offenders accountable and deter future violence. \tIncreased public awareness: Raising awareness about the seriousness of non-fatal strangulation can help educate the public about this issue and encourage more victims to come forward. Medical evaluation of non-fatal strangulation When law enforcement responds to an incident of non-fatal strangulation, it is important to first assess the victim's medical needs. Many victims of non-fatal strangulation will have visible injuries, such as bruising or swelling, and may also have difficulty breathing or changes in their voice. Additionally, victims may have petechiae, which are small red or purple spots on the skin that indicate bleeding beneath the surface. It is equally important to note that MOST victims will have NO outward signs of the attempted strangulation for you to observe. The importance of a medical evaluation When law enforcement responds to an incident of domestic violence, it is important to remember that strangulation is a serious offense that can have long-term effects on the victim, even if there are no visible injuries. For this reason, it is crucial that victims of non-fatal strangulation be given a full medical evaluation as soon as possible after the incident. There are many potential consequences of strangulation, including brain damage, loss of consciousness, and death. Even when the victim does not lose consciousness, strangulation can still cause long-term health problems, such as difficulty swallowing, headaches, and dizziness. In addition, victims of strangulation are at an increased risk of suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental health problems. Because of the serious nature of strangulation, it is important for law enforcement officers to be aware of the signs and symptoms so they can properly assess the situation and ensure that the victim receives the medical attention they need. The current state of medical evaluations for non-fatal strangulation In the United States, there is no standard medical protocol for the evaluation of non-fatal strangulation. This leaves law enforcement, Medical Examiners, and prosecutors struggling to determine the best way to document and investigate these cases. There are a few different ways that medical professionals can evaluate strangulation victims. They can do a physical exam, which looks for things like bruising or swelling in the neck; they can do a laryngoscopy, which is an exam of the larynx (voice box) using a special camera / mirror (from personal experience, these are NO fun at all); or they can do a CT scan or MRI of the neck. None of these methods is perfect, and each has its own advantages and disadvantages. For example, physical exams are relatively quick and easy to do, but they can miss some subtle signs of injury. Laryngoscopies are more invasive, but they provide a better view of the vocal cords and other structures in the throat. CT scans and MRIs are expensive and may not be available in all hospitals, but they can provide more detailed information about possible injuries. The best way to evaluate a victim of non-fatal strangulation is probably a combination of all three methods: physical exam, laryngoscopy, and imaging. This will give law enforcement the best chance of identifying strangulation victims and documenting their injuries accurately. The potential benefits of a better understanding of the medical evaluation of non-fatal strangulation It is critical that law enforcement and medical professionals have a shared understanding of the medical evaluation of non-fatal strangulation. By developing a standard definition and consistent terminology for non-fatal strangulation, we can improve data collection, allow for better research, and ultimately improve responses to these crimes. Strangulation is a leading cause of death for women in the United States, and it is often a precursor to fatal violence. In fact, survivors of non-fatal strangulation are 7.5 times more likely to be killed by their intimate partner than those who have not been strangled. Despite the severity of this problem, there is still a great deal of confusion about what constitutes non-fatal strangulation and how it should be evaluated. This is due in part to the fact that there is no standard definition or consistent terminology for non-fatal strangulation. As a result, data collection on this issue is often inconsistent and inadequate. This lack of understanding can have serious implications for law enforcement and medical professionals who respond to these crimes. Without a shared understanding of the medical evaluation of non-fatal strangulation, we are less likely to be able to effectively identify and respond to these crimes. The impact of non-fatal strangulation on law enforcement In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of non-fatal strangulation cases reported to law enforcement. This surge in cases has put a strain on police resources, as these incidents can be difficult to investigate and prosecute. In addition, many victims of non-fatal strangulation experience long-term physical and psychological effects, which can impact their ability to participate in the criminal justice process. The current state of law enforcement's response to non-fatal strangulation In the United States, it is estimated that 1 in 6 women and 1 in 33 men have experienced an attempted or completed rape in their lifetime. Sexual violence affects people of all ages, genders, and sexual orientations. Though there has been an increased focus on sexual violence in recent years, there is still much work to be done in terms of law enforcement's response to these crimes. One specific type of sexual violence that has received relatively little attention is non-fatal strangulation. Strangulation is a serious form of assault that, as stated previously, can have lasting physical and psychological effects on the victim. Despite the seriousness of this crime, law enforcement's response to strangulation has been historically lax. This is beginning to change, however, as more states enact laws specifically addressing strangulation. In 2015, Colorado became the first state to pass a law making strangulation a felony offense. Since then, more than 20 states have followed suit. These laws are a positive step forward in ensuring that perpetrators of this serious crime are held accountable for their actions. Despite these advances, there is still much work to be done in terms of law enforcement's response to non-fatal strangulation. In many cases, officers are not trained to properly recognize the signs of strangulation and therefore do not investigate these crimes as thoroughly as they should. Additionally, many jurisdictions do not have laws specifically addressing strangulation, making it difficult to prosecute these cases. It is clear that more needs to be done to ensure that law enforcement is properly equipped to respond to this serious crime. The passage of state laws specifically addressing strangulation is a positive step in the right direction, but more needs to be done to ensure that officers are trained to properly investigate these cases and that perpetrators are held accountable for their actions. The potential benefits of a better understanding of the impact of non-fatal strangulation on law enforcement It is estimated that nearly one in five women in the United States have been strangled by an intimate partner at some point in their lives.(1) As mentioned non-fatal strangulation is a severe form of violence that can have long-term physical and psychological effects on survivors, including increased risk of homicide.(2) A better understanding of the impact of non-fatal strangulation on law enforcement could help police agencies develop more effective policies and procedures for responding to and investigating these crimes. In addition, a better understanding of the short- and long-term physical and psychological effects of non-fatal strangulation could help law enforcement agencies provide more informed and supportive responses to survivors. \tNational Coalition Against Domestic Violence. (2017). Domestic violence statistics. Retrieved from https://www.ncadv.org/resources/statistics \tNational Institute of Justice. (2016). The scope of the problem: Non-fatal strangulation. Retrieved from https://www.nij.gov/journals/260/pages/strangulation.aspx Voice changes after non-fatal strangulation The current state of research on voice changes after non-fatal strangulation Strangulation is a common form of violence experienced by women in close relationships. Although most survivors do not experience long-term health consequences, a significant minority report voice changes that persist for months or years after the assault. A study sought to characterize the nature and prevalence of voice changes after non-fatal strangulation among a sample of female survivors who presented to a hospital-based domestic violence program. A total of 100 women were interviewed an average of 3.5 years after their most recent strangulation incident. Forty percent reported hoarseness, 37% reported pitch changes, and 14% reported both hoarseness and pitch changes. Overall, 46% of women reported at least one type of voice change that persisted for more than 1 month after the assault. These voice changes were significantly associated with increased levels of anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and functional vocal limitations. The results of that study suggested that voice changes are a common long-term consequence of non-fatal strangulation among female survivors of intimate partner violence. These findings have implications for clinical practice, research, and public health policy related to the identification and treatment of survivors of this type of violence. Understanding voice changes after non-fatal strangulation Strangulation is a type of mechanical asphyxia, which can result in death or permanent disability. Non-fatal strangulation is a increasingly recognized form of domestic violence and has potential long-term effects on the victim's voice. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are any significant changes in voice quality after non-fatal strangulation. Twenty women who were victims of non-fatal strangulation and 20 matched controls were recruited. All participants underwent voice evaluation by a certified speech-language pathologist. Objective measures of voice quality were collected, including mean fundamental frequency, vocal range, maximum phonation time, and acoustic measures of vocal fold vibration. Subjective ratings of voice quality were also collected from both participants and listeners. The results of this study showed that there were significant differences in voice quality between the two groups, with the victims of strangulation having worse voice quality than the controls. These differences were seen in both objective and subjective measures of voice quality. This study suggests that non-fatal strangulation can result in significant changes in voice quality that may have long-term effects on the victim's ability to communicate effectively. Difficulty breathing after non-fatal strangulation The current state of research on difficulty breathing after non-fatal strangulation In the last decade, there has been an increase in both the understanding of the potential for difficulty breathing after non-fatal strangulation and in law enforcement's response to non-fatal strangulation. While much progress has been made, there is still more to be learned about the long-term effects of non-fatal strangulation and the best way to respond to these incidents. Difficulty breathing after non-fatal strangulation is a relatively new area of research. As such, there is still much that is not known about the potential long-term effects of this type of trauma. However, what we do know is that even a short period of time without oxygen can cause serious damage to the brain and other vital organs. Additionally, research has shown that there is a correlation between non-fatal strangulation and an increased risk of future homicide. Because of the potential for serious harm, it is important for law enforcement officers to be aware of the signs and symptoms of difficulty breathing after non-fatal strangulation. Officers should also know how to properly document these incidents and collect evidence that can be used in court. Additionally, it is important for officers to receive training on how to best support victims of non-fatal strangulation. By increasing our understanding of this type of violence and continuing to improve our response, we can help ensure that victims receive the support they need and that perpetrators are held accountable for their actions. Petechiae after non-fatal strangulation Petechiae, or tiny red or purple spots on the skin, can occur after non-fatal strangulation. The spots are caused by bleeding under the skin and are often a sign of more serious injury. Petechiae are often seen on the face, neck, and chest, but can occur anywhere on the body. While many of these non-fatal strangulation incidents are reported to law enforcement, the vast majority go unreported. This is due in part to the fact that many victims do not realize that they have been strangled until after the fact. Additionally, many victims are afraid to come forward or do not want to press charges against their attacker. One of the most common signs of non-fatal strangulation is petechiae. Petechiae are tiny red or purple dots that occur when blood vessels burst beneath the skin. They can be caused by a variety of things, but most often occur as a result of high pressure or trauma. In the context of non-fatal strangulation, petechiae can be an important forensic indicator of violence. They can help to establish both the manner and cause of death in homicide cases, and can also help to corroborate victim testimony in non-fatal cases. Attempted Strangulation Training Because of the seriousness of this crime, we've created a course on the proper way to investigate and document nonfatal strangulation. Of course we have! Whether you choose to train with us, or another training provider on this topic, make sure you do. Properly investigating these types of cases can save a life.